As the most advanced development stage of facility horticulture, plant factories are considered to be one of the important technical means for the revolutionary breakthrough of agriculture in the 21st century. The plant factory is a high-efficiency agricultural system that realizes the continuous production of crops by high-precision control of the environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, light, CO2 concentration and nutrition of the plant growth process in the facility.
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LED application in plant factories
At present, there are two main modes of plant factories: one is a greenhouse-based combination of sunlight and artificial light; the other is a fully-controlled artificial plant with closed heat insulation space. Compared with the combined plant, the human light completely controlled plant is less affected by the external climate, can achieve annual continuous production, and can be multi-layered, with high space utilization and high output level, and obvious advantages, but air conditioning and lighting power consumption Large and high operating costs have also become important constraints to its development.
Therefore, energy saving and consumption reduction has become an important issue for artificial light-controlled plant factories. The selection of high-efficiency artificial light source is an important means to solve the problem of energy consumption in plant factories. At present, plant factories mainly use high-pressure sodium lamps and fluorescent lamps as illumination sources, which have large heat dissipation and high refrigeration costs. Since 1994, Japan has begun trials of LEDs as illumination sources for plant factories, using a combination of red LEDs with a wavelength of 660 nm and 5% blue LEDs for lettuce and rice cultivation. Okamoto et al  used ultra-high brightness red LEDs and blue LEDs to develop lettuce successfully when the red-blue ratio (R/B) was 2:1. Yanagi et al. conducted a study on lettuce growth and morphogenesis using monochromatic red LEDs, blue LEDs, and combinations thereof. The results showed that lettuce was cultivated in monochromatic blue light.
In the environment of LED (170 μmol·m-2·s-1), the dry matter weight is smaller than that of the pure red LED or red blue LED combination, but the plant appears to be more robust and healthy. Fukai et al. reported a vegetable plant that uses a water-cooled template LED light source to produce vegetables and celery by NFT, with a production capacity of 5,900 plants/d and 1.5 million plants/y.
The building size of the factory is 13m×13m×12m, the cultivation bed area is 800m2 (8m×10 m×10 layers), the cultivation light source is improved water-cooled red LED, and other environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, CO2, airflow speed, etc. Automatic control is possible. The plant can be harvested after 2 weeks of planting, and the plant cultivation efficiency (light energy for light synthesis/power input from the lamp) is 0.01, and the light energy utilization efficiency is extremely high.
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