Plant tissue culture is a rapid breeding technology that can obtain a large number of seedlings of the same quality in a short period of time through large-scale production. The breeding seedlings are fast-adapted and are not subject to external climate, topography, geography and time. At present, it has become an important means of genetic breeding, germplasm conservation and rapid detoxification. However, the artificial light source used is mostly a fluorescent lamp, which has low light efficiency, large heat generation, and energy consumption cost accounts for 40% to 50% of its operating cost. The application of new energy-saving light sources and reduction of energy consumption has always been a hot spot in plant tissue culture research.
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LED application in the field of plant tissue culture
Since the 1990s, countries around the world have been actively studying the feasibility of using LED as a light source for tissue culture. In terms of the effect of monochromatic light on tissue culture seedlings, Tanaka et al. found that red LED can promote leaf growth of orchid tissue culture seedlings, but the chlorophyll content, stem and root dry weight are slightly lower than fluorescent lamps. Iwanami et al. used the LED to supplement the monochromatic red or far red light to change the light quality, thereby controlling the length and growth of the potato tissue culture stem. Kim and other researches believe that under the treatment of single red LED or red LED + far red LED, excessive elongation of chrysanthemum tissue culture stems leads to fragile stems, and other important indicators are also reduced, which is generally not conducive to the normal growth and development of plants. The main reason is that the monochromatic red light causes the distribution of light energy available to the system to be unbalanced, inhibiting stem growth. Poudel et al. found that the plant height and internode length of all genotypes of grape seedlings treated with pure red LED were significantly longer than those of fluorescent lamps, but the chlorophyll content and the number of leaf stomata were the highest with monochromatic blue LED treatment. The red LED is processed to the lowest. This indicates that the plant height is directly related to the rooting ratio, and the long wavelength (660 nm) red light is necessary for the formation of grape roots. The combination of red and blue LEDs has a positive effect on the growth and development of tissue culture plants, mainly because the spectral energy distribution of red and blue light is consistent with the peak area of chlorophyll absorption spectrum, thus improving the net photosynthetic rate of tissue culture seedlings.
Nhut et al. used different combinations of red and blue LEDs to compare the growth of banana seedlings with fluorescent lamps, using 80% red LED + 20% blue light and 90% red LED + 10% blue LED in different illumination. The banana seedlings were irradiated under the intensity (45, 60, 75 μmol·m-2·s-1). The results showed that under the illumination intensity of 80% red ED+20% blue LED (60μmol·m-2·s-1) The bud and root fresh weight of the test tube seedlings were significantly higher than other treatments. Rao Ruiqi and others have developed artificial light source systems that can adjust the amount of light, light quality, luminous frequency and duty cycle using ultra-high brightness red and blue LEDs. Fang et al. used high-frequency flashing red and blue LEDs as light sources, and found that the growth rate of potato tissue culture seedlings can be improved without increasing the power consumption cost.
Barta et al. studied the differentiation and regeneration of Lilium buds with red light, blue light and their combined LEDs. The results showed that red-blue combined LEDs can promote flower bud differentiation more than other light sources, and are more suitable for shoot growth, plant size and stem. Fresh weight has increased significantly. Nhut et al. found that under the irradiation of 70% red LED + 30% blue LED, the number of leaves, root number, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of strawberry tissue culture seedlings were the highest, and the growth after transplanting was also the best. It can be seen that the illumination under different red and blue LED combinations has a great influence on seedling growth.